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TWO BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE

There are two main branches of agricultural production – crop production and animal husbandry. Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. The most important crops grown by man are grain crops, vegetables and grasses. In order to obtain high yields crops are grown under favorable soil and climatic conditions. Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture including the breeding of farm animals and their use. Dairy and beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry are widely bred throughout the world. Farm animals are highly important sources of food for man. They are kept for the production of such nutritious products as meat, milk and eggs. Many crops grown by man are used in feeding livestock. At the same time manure produced by farm animals is an important source for the maintenance of soil fertility. Most of the nutrients taken by plants from the soil are thus returned. Applying manure, farmers improve the physical condition of the soil.

Образуйте причастия 1 и 2 от следующих глаголов. Переведите их.

to produce, to improve, to supply, to use, to increase, to harvest, to feed, to breed, to grow.

Выделите причастный оборот в каждом предложении. Переведите предложения.

The products supplied by farm animals are meat, milk and eggs. 2. Farmers supplying their animals with nutritious feed obtain much milk and meat. 3. Grain crops harvested with combines produce higher yields. 4. Increasing soil fertility, farmers increase yields of grain crops, vegetables and grasses.

Найдите в тексте 6 предложений с причастными оборотами и переведите их.

Some farmers keep poultry in poultry houses in summer and in winter.2. All grain crops take the same nutrients from the soil. 3. Some cultural practices are highly effective in controlling weeds. 4. These two farmers use the same methods in growing vegetables.

Ответьте на вопросы по-английски:

1. What are the two branches of agriculture? 2. What is crop production? 3. What are the main farm crops? 4. What does animal husbandry include? 5. What products do farm animals produce? 6. What is manure used for? 7. How do farmers improve the physical condition of the soil?

Две отрасли сельского хозяйства

Для производства, для улучшения, для питания, чтобы использовать, чтобы увеличить, для сбора урожая, чтобы питаться, размножаться, расти.

Продукцией, поставляемой сельскохозяйственными животными являются молоко, мясо и яйца. Фермеров поставке животных с корма получить больше молока и мяса. Зерновые культуры собраны и сочетают в себе производить более высокие урожаи. Повышения плодородия почв фермеров повысить урожайность зерновых культур овощей и трав.

Некоторые фермеры сохранить птицы в птичниках летом и зимой всех зерновых культур принимать такие же питательные вещества из почвы. Некоторые культурные практики являются весьма эффективными в борьбе с сорняками. Там два фермера используют те же методы выращивания овощей.

Источник

Методическое пособие по английскому языку для специальности «Фермерское хозяйство»

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов по специальности «Фермерское хозяйство» включает введение, тексты по темам, приложение – словарь, литературу.

Данное учебное пособие имеет практическую значимость. Целью его составления является формирование языковой компетенции студентов ТиПО, для успешного общения на иностранном языке в рамках профессиональной направленности.

Материалы данного пособия помогают формировать навыки ознакомительного чтения на основе словесных опор и фоновых знаний извлекать из текста необходимую информацию

Учебное пособие может выполнять функции руководства по изучению предложенной дисциплины, как на занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.

Содержание

Tекст 1. Что такое сельское хозяйство? What is agriculture?………………. 5

Текст 2. Две отрасли сельского хозяйства. Two branches of agriculture…… 6

Teкст 3. Мы идём на ферму. We go to the state farm ………………………. 7

Teкст 4. Преимущества механизации фермы.

Advantages of farm mechanization …………………………………………… 8

Teкст5.Недостатки механизации фермы.

Disadvantages of farm mechanization ………………………………………..9

Teкст 6. Результаты механизации сельского хозяйства Америки. Effects

of mechanization on American agriculture …………….……………………. 10

Teкст7. Советские трактора. Soviet tractors………………………………. 11

Текст 8. Сельскохозяйственные машины. Farm machines……………………. 12

Текст 9. Оборудование для жатвы. Harvesting Machinery……………………… 13

Текст 10. Некоторые сельхозмашины в США. Some farm machines in the USA. 14

Текст 11. История плуга. History of the plow……………………………………. 15

Текст 12. Механизация в добычи зерновых. Mechanization in crop production… 16

Текст 13. Значение машин и энергии в сельском хозяйстве. Importance of machinery and energy in agriculture………………………………………………. 17

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«методическое пособие по английскому языку для специальности «Фермерское хозяйство»»

КГУ «Тайыншинский колледж агробизнеса»

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов специальности «Фермерское хозяйство»

Разработан преподавателем английского языка

Садыковой Гульнарой Кабдылкадыровной

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов по специальности «Фермерское хозяйство» включает введение, тексты по темам, приложение – словарь, литературу.

Данное учебное пособие имеет практическую значимость. Целью его составления является формирование языковой компетенции студентов ТиПО, для успешного общения на иностранном языке в рамках профессиональной направленности.

Материалы данного пособия помогают формировать навыки ознакомительного чтения на основе словесных опор и фоновых знаний извлекать из текста необходимую информацию

Учебное пособие может выполнять функции руководства по изучению предложенной дисциплины, как на занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.

Tекст 1. Что такое сельское хозяйство? What is agriculture?………………. 5

Текст 2. Две отрасли сельского хозяйства. Two branches of agriculture…… 6

Teкст 3. Мы идём на ферму. We go to the state farm ……………………….. 7

Teкст 4. Преимущества механизации фермы.

Advantages of farm mechanization …………………………………………… 8

Teкст5.Недостатки механизации фермы.

Teкст 6. Результаты механизации сельского хозяйства Америки. Effects

of mechanization on American agriculture ……………. …………………….. 10

Teкст7. Советские трактора. Soviet tractors………………………………. 11

Текст 8. Сельскохозяйственные машины. Farm machines……………………. 12

Текст 9. Оборудование для жатвы. Harvesting Machinery……………………… 13

Текст 10. Некоторые сельхозмашины в США. Some farm machines in the USA. 14

Текст 11. История плуга. History of the plow……………………………………. 15

Текст 12. Механизация в добычи зерновых. Mechanization in crop production… 16

Текст 13. Значение машин и энергии в сельском хозяйстве. Importance of machinery and energy in agriculture……………………………………………….. 17

Цель пособия – заложить основы навыков чтения и перевода текстов средней трудности. Работая по данному пособию, у студентов формируются практические навыки различных видов речевой деятельности.

Основной текст урока направлен на развитие навыков чтения вслух, умения извлекать полную и частичную информацию, основную идею. Текст также является основой для монологической и диалогической речи.

Далее следуют упражнения, имеющие целью проверку понимания и осмысления содержания текста, активизацию мыслительной деятельности учащихся. Предварительно, однако, преподавателю следует объяснить учащимся сложные места текста, оказавшиеся для них непонятными.

Система упражнений направлена на обучение чтению различных видов (изучающего, ознакомительного, просмотрового и поискового). В пояснениях к тексту раскрывается значение тех или иных реалий, фразеологизмов, сокращений и т.п. За пояснениями к тексту следует подлежащий заучиванию лексический минимум, который содержит до 20 наиболее употребительных в сельскохозяйственных текстах общенаучных слов и терминов. Остальные слова, необходимые для понимания текста, студенты отыскивают в словаре и записывают в тетради.

В конце пособия имеется англо-русский словарь терминов, встречающихся в текстах, но отсутствующих в рекомендуемых студентам общих словарях.

Read and translate the text:

Agriculture is an important branch of economy. Economic growth of any country depends on the development of agriculture which supplies people with food and clothing and industry with raw materials.

The word «agre» is a Latin word. It means the cultivation of fields in order to grow crops. Now agriculture also includes the use of land to breed

We do not know when people began to grow crops. It was many thou­sand years ago. Now crop production and animal husbandry are highly developed branches of agriculture.

Life is impossible without plants. They play a highly, important role in everyday life of people. Plants that ate grown by farmers are known as farm crops. They are used for many different purposes. Most of them are used directly as food for people, some are consumed by farm animals, oth­ers are used in industry and medicine.

In order to increase crop yields and animal products our collective and state farms apply widely intensive technologies.

agriculture – сельское хозяйство

farm – ферма, хозяйство

grow – расти, выращивать

Call equivalents following international words: region, climate, machine, tractor, combine, bulldozer, to mechanize, tendency, tradition, traditional, industrial.

2. What questions are answered in the text:

Из каких отраслей состоит сельское хозяйство?

Когда люди начали выращивать сельскохозяйственные культуры?

Может ли человек жить, не выращивая культуры?

О каких интенсивных технологиях говорится в тексте?

1. Why is agriculture very important?

2. What are the two branches of agriculture?

3. What does the Latin word «agre» mean?

4. Is life possible without plants?

5. Where are farm crops used?

6. How do people increase crop yields?

Read and translate the text:

Text 2. Two branches of agriculture

There are two main branches of agricultural production — crop produc­tion and animal husbandry.

Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. The most important crops grown by man are grain crops, vegetables and grasses. In order to obtain high yields crops are grown under favorable soil and climatic conditions.

Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture including the breeding of
farm animals and their use. Dairy and beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry
are widely bred throughout the world. Farm animals are highly important
sources of food for man. They are kept for the production of such nutritious
products as meat, milk and eggs.

Thus, crop production and animal husbandry are closely connected with each other.

Explanations to the text:

Under… conditions – при (в) … условиях

With each other – друг с другом

Some – несколько, некоторый

The same – тот же самый, один и тот же

dairy cattle – молочный скот

to keep – содержать

nutrient – питательное вещество

poultry – домашняя птица

soil fertility – плодородие почвы

1. What are the two branches of agriculture?

2. What is crop production?

3. What are the main farm crops?

4. What does animal husbandry include?

5. What products do farm animals produce?

6. What is manure used for?

7. How do farmers improve the physical condition of the

2. Translate the sentences (pay attention to the words some and same): 1. Some farmers keep poultry in poultry houses in summer and in winter.

2. All grain crops take the same nutrients from the soil.

3. Some cultural practices are highly effective in controlling weeds.

4. These two farmers use the same methods in growing vegetables.

4. Find 3 adjectives and form three degrees of comparison.

Read and translate the dialogue:

We go to the state farm

Alexei: Hello, everybody, grand news’. We’re going to work on the kolkhoz just like real kolkhozniks do. There’ll be a school team and we’ll get paid for our work.

Vasily: Shall we? But we have got to learn how to work. It’s not so

easy with all the modern machinery. We’ll make poor workers. I’m afraid.

Alexei: Never mind, we’ll manage.

Vasily: You are a young naturalist, and a gifted one, You’ve got

some knowledge of farming, but we haven’ t.

Grisha: I’m terribly keen on becoming a tractor-driver!

Vasily: Better be a combine-driver, but you never will.

Grisha: Won’t 1? And why, if I may ask?

Alexei: Because your favourite mark in physics is «two»

Grisha: That has nothing to do with my wish to work as a tractor-driver!

Andrei: Hello, Misha, everything’s all right!

Masha: What is all right? What are you talking about?

Andrei: You know that Dad wants me to work on the hog farm, but I do not want to.

Misha: Yes, I know that you’ve quarrelled because of that.

Andrei: I think a man isn’t much use on a farm now if he does not know everything about machines. Mechanization is what I’m interested in.

Misha: I know that. You’d better tell me what’s happened.

Misha: But there is Vlasov who does all the repairs.

Andrei: He is gone to town. And I asked Mum to let me have a go. I saw she didn’t believe I could do it, but she took me to the dairy-farm and I repaired the machine in half an hour. Now it works all right.

Misha: Does your father know about it?

Andrei: Oh, yes. He said “Congratulations” and not a word about the hog farm.

Комбайнёр, что случилось, школьная команда, молочная ферма, механизация – вот чем я интересуюсь, всё в порядке, знания о фермерстве, работать в колхозе, современные машины, что ты скажешь об этом.

To be, to know, to go, to do, to work, to say, to make, to come, to ask, to happen.

Read and translate the text:

Text 4. Advantages of farm mechanization

Hard hand labour has been reduced. Production and income per person engaged in farming have been markedly increased. Land that was needed to produce feed for horses is now used for the production of food for people. Farm work can be done more rapidly when weather and soil conditions are most favourable. Crops can be planted, cultivated and harvested in a shorter time than in the past.

hard hand labour – тяжёлый ручной труд

income per person – доход на душу населения

Land is used for the _______________ of food for people.

Farm work depends on the __________ and soil conditions.

Hard hand labour has been ___________.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. For which purposes is being used the land?

2. Of which depends the yield?

3. Why crops can be planted, cultivated and harvested in a shorter time than in the past?

Inc_me, condi__ons, f_ _d, h_s, p__ple, _ork, t_me, favour__le.

Read and translate the text:

Text 5. Disadvantages of farm mechanization

Farmers must have more capital to be engaged in farming because of large investments in farm machines and other equipment. Farmers must have a larger and more stable income to have money for electricity and tractor fuel. Farms have to be larger in size. So, small farms are disappearing and many farmers cannot be engaged in farming. Farmers must have better knowledge and skill in operating modern farm equipment efficiently.

1. Make 3 questions to the text.

Стабильный доход, тракторное топливо, знания и умения, большие вложения, большие по размеру.

Farmers, investments, machines.

Read and translate the text:

Effects of mechanization on American agriculture

Mechanization and application of other scientific developments to farming have increased the output per farm worker. Hand labour required for farming has markedly decreased while the production per person has increased.

The increase in production is greater in crop farming than in livestock breeding because crop production has been mechanized to a greater extent 2 than in livestock production.

About 50 years ago 27 per cent of the total population of the country was engaged in agriculture, now the employment in this sector of the econ­omy is about 2.5%.

In 1955 labour made up 32 per cent of the cost of farming; by 1980 it only 3.1 per cent. The machinery cost in farming, on the other hand, has continued to increase.

The organization of agriculture in the years to come will use less land, lees labour, fewer but better managers and much more capital, machines and various types of technology. These trends have been in progress for decades and it is unlikely 3 that there will be any change from this direction.

technological revolution – научно- техническая революция

skill – мастерство, умение

1. Find and translate the sentences, which says:

о факторах научно-технической революции;

о снижении ручного труда в сельском хозяйстве;

о более высокой продуктивности растениеводства;

об основных тенденциях развития сельского хозяйства в будущем.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the trend in American agriculture?

2. What are the most im­portant components of the technological revolution?

3. What has increased the output per farm worker?

4. Why is the produce increase in crop pro­duction greater than in livestock breeding?

5. What is the employment in agriculture now?

6. What will the trend of the development of agriculture be in future?

Read and translate the text:

The tractor industry in our country is highly developed. Many different types of tractors are being produced for doing various agricultural practices on soils, including the K-701 wheeled tractor powered by a 300 horse power engine the T-150 crawler tractor, MTZ — 80 wheeled tractor and many others. These tractors are used with different mounted and trailed farm machines for plowing, cultivating, har­rowing, sowing and harvesting agricultural crops.

At present millions of tractors are working in the fields of the state and collective farms. With the modern Soviet tractors all the main field operations have been fully mechanized in our country.

Learn the words. wheeled tractor – колёсный трактор

crawler tractor – гусеничный трактор

1. Answer the following questions:

1) Is the tractor industry highly developed in our country?

2) For what used tractors?

3) What kinds of tractors do you know?

полностью механизированы, 300 лошадиных сил, сельхоз. культуры, коллективные фермы, в настоящее время.

1. Tractors are __________different mounted and trailed farm machines.

2. The tractor ________in our country is highly developed.

3. _______ millions of tractors are working in the fields.

Read and translate the text:

Every collective farm has various types of machines that plow the soil, plant the seeds, cultivate the plants, harvest the crops and transport the products harvested.

Soviet collective farmers use tractors (in terms of 15 horsepower units), lorries, different drills, planters and harvesters. At present nearly every branch of agronomy uses specialized harvesters. Thus, we find grain combine harvesters, corn pickers, cotton pickers, tea pickers, fruit pickers, tomato harvesters. For harvesting root and tuber crops there exist various diggers such as potato diggers, carrot diggers, sugar beet diggers, onion diggers, etc.

in terms – в пересчёте

the tubers – клубни

a digger – экскаватор

1. What kinds of farm machines do you know?

2. What belongs to the specialized harvesters?

2. Complete the sentences:

Every branch of agronomy uses ____________.

There are various diggers such as______________.

___________ has various types of machines.

______________ use tractors, lorries, different drills, planters and harvesters.

potato diggers, carrot diggers; every collective farm; specialized harvesters; collective farmers.

Используются различные экскаваторы, транспортировка выращенной продукции, в настоящее время, отрасли агрономии, сбор урожая.

Types, diggers, pickers, harvesters, seeds, plants, lorries, drills.

Read and translate the text:

Harvesting Machinery Harvesting machinery or equipment is a mechanical device used for harvesting. There are several types of harvesting machines which are generally classified by crop. Reapers are used for cutting cereal grains, threshers for separating the seed from the plant; whereas corn or maize harvesting is performed by employing a specially designed mechanical device ‘ mechanical corn pickers.’ A typical harvesting machine comprises of a traveling part, a reaping part, and a baler part.

Harvesting machines are also used for controlling the production of weeds. Machines like field choppers, balers, mowers, crushers and windrowers are the common examples of this category. A forage harvester is used for cutting and chopping of almost all silage crops.

Types of Harvesting Machinery
Following is a brief description of major harvesting machines used all around the globe:

Crop Harvesting Machine: The mechanical device which harvests forage crops cultivated in upland/paddy field and forms roll bale simultaneously was developed, is termed as crop harvesting machinery. It comprises of traveling, reaping and a baler part.

Grain Harvesting Machine: This machine is used to harvest grains, the edible brans or fruit seeds of a cereal crop.

Root crop Harvesting Machine: Traditionally root crops are harvested with diggers and digger-pickers. Now a days, several machines are available in the market. Modern sugar-beet harvester is one of the most popular examples of the root crop harvesting machine.

Threshers: Threshers or threshing machine is used for the separation of grain from stalks and husks.

Vegetable Harvesting Machine: Nowadays, machines are also available for the harvesting of vegetables. These ‘vegetable harvesting machines’, are quite common among the global vegetable farmers. Tomato harvesting machine is the most common example of this.

whereas – в то время как

mechanical corn pickers – механические сборщики кукурузы

a baler – пресс-подборщики

a windrower – дробилка

a forage harvester – кормоуборочный комбайн

a brief description – краткое описание

crop Harvesting Machine – машина для сборки урожая

grain Harvesting Machine – зерноуборочная машина

root crop Harvesting Machine – машина для уборки корнеплодов

a digger-picker – экскаватор-сборщик

What is Harvesting Machinery?

2) What types of harvesting machinery do you know?

3) What is crop Harvesting Machine?

4) For what purposes is used grain Harvesting Machine?

5) Give an example of root crop Harvesting Machine.

6) Call vegetable Harvesting Machine.

В наши дни, механическое устройство, рисовое поле, типичная машина для сборки урожая, пример из этой категории, использоваться, сбор овощей.

4. Make a dialog. Read and translate the text:

Text 10. Some farm machines dm the USA

Before 1930 most com was picked by hand, one ear at a time. Today self-propelled pickers are standard equipment on Corn Belt farms and in many other parts of the USA. One person operating a two-row picker can harvest more corn per day than ten hand pickers.

Although mechanical pickers are produced in a greater number every year much cotton is still picked by hand because many fields are too small or too rough for mechanical harvesting. One-row cotton picker can harvest as much cotton per hour as 50 hand pickers.

at a time – за один раз

О каких сельхозмашинах говорится в тексте?

Какова эффективность кукурузоуборочной машины по сравнению с уборкой вручную?

Почему хлопок иногда убирают вручную?

2. Find English equivalents and make your own sentences with them.

Стандартное оборудование, один человек, собирать вручную, большое количество, механизированная уборка.

Equip_ent, _echanical, co_n, harves_, cot_on, h_nd.

Read and translate the text:

Text 11. History of the plow

First steel plows came to the fields of America in 1937. First plows were of the «walking» type, that is, the operator walked behind the plow while horses pulled it.

Some decades later the first riding plow was developed. The plow was mounted on wheels and pulled by two to four horses. It had a place for the operator to sit. The operator could plow two acres per day, as compared to about one acre with the walking plow.

Today there are tractor-drawn plows that can plow an acre or more per hour.

some decades later – спустя несколько десятилетий

riding plow – едущий плуг

tractor-drawn – на тракторной тяге

а) о каких трёх видах плугов говорится в тексте; б) какой плуг является экономичным и более выгодным?

Plows and various cultivators are used

Self-propelled machines are those that

Silage unloader and milking machines are powered

Cereals are planted

a. are not powered by tractors.

b. with tractor-drawn drills.

c. to till the soil.

d. with electricity.

3. Find English equivalents and make your own sentences with them.

Плуг, получить развитие, колесо, сегодня, акр, день, лошади, в сравнении, тянуть, место, поле, тип.

Read and translate the text:

Text 12. Mechanization in crop production

Tillage practices vary with soil and climatic conditions and the crop that is to be grown. Tillage includes plowing, harrowing and rolling the soil. There are some purposes of tilling the soil. They are to improve the aera­tion and temperature conditions, to produce a firm soil and to control weeds. Different types of plows, harrows and rollers are now available to till the soil.

Seed should be sown in a firm, moist soil and covered at a proper depth to germinate rapidly and uniformly. Many various types of grain drills and planters have been developed to suit varying farm requirements. Some modern drills are equipped with attachments for seeding legume and grass seed and for spreading fertilizers. So, seed can be sown and fertilizer spread in one operation. Fertilizers can also be broadcast before planting. Recently attachments have been added to planters for applying insecticides and herbicides to the soil.

Harvesting crops is the final field operation. Combines that harvest and thresh small grains and some other crops have displaced most threshing machines or threshers. For harvesting to be successful, one should grow a variety that is adapted to mechanical harvesting. The plants should be of uniform height and should mature uniformly. Root crops and potatoes are harvested with root lifters and potato diggers respectively.

to control – уничтожать, бороться

cover seed – заделывать семена

to equip – оборудовать, оснащать

potato digger – картофелекопалка

root lifter – уборочная машина для корнеплодов

to spread – разбрасывать

to thresh – молотить

uniform – однородный, одинаковый

1. What operations does tillage include?

2. What machines are used in tilling the soil?

3. What are some drills equipped with?

4. What is the final field operation?

5. What machines are used in root crop and potato har­vesting?

2. Complete the sentences of the following words and phrase:

1. tillage practices; by applying; proper; can be; improved; soils. 2. a fine oil; are used; harrows; to produce. 3. seed; in; a moist soil; rapidly, germinates. 4. in one operation; harvest; thresh; and; combines.

3. Прочитайте и переведите предложения, в которых говорится:

а) о факторах, которые влияют на выбор приёмов обработки почвы;

б) о целях обработки почвы;

в) об условиях быстрого прорастания семян;

г) о том, как можно применять гербициды;

д) об использовании комбайнов.

Read and translate the text:

Text 13. Importance of machinery and energy in agriculture

More and more machines are used on farms today replacing hand labour and increasing labour productivity. With machines and power avail­able farmers not only can do more work and do it more economically, but (hey can do higher-quality work and the work may be finished in a shorter and more favourable time.

Machines that are used for crop production include those that till the soil, plant the crops, perform various cultural practices during the growing season and harvest the crops.

Many machines are known to be powered by tractors. Implements such as plows, cultivators and planters may be mounted on a tractor or they may be pulled by a tractor.

However, an increasing number of farm machines are now self-propelled. These machines are grain combine harvesters, cotton pickers, forage harvesters, and many other specialized farm machines.

Machines that do not require mobility are usually powered with electric motors. Such machines include silage unloaders, livestock feeding equip­ment and milking machines.

Farm machines we use today are quite different from those the farmers used two or even one decade ago. The tractors, tractor-drawn planters and drills were smaller and less productive. They could plant less acres per day than the machines do now.

combine harvester- уборочный комбайн

drill – рядовая сеялка

hand labour – ручной труд

milking machine – доильный аппарат

planter – посадочная машина, сажалка

power – энергия, приводить в движение (глаг.)

self- propelled – самоходный

silage – unloader – разгрузочная машина для силоса

to till – обрабатывать почву

tractor- drawn – на тракторной тяге

Plows and various cultivators are used

Self-propelled machines are those that

Silage unloader and milking machines are powered

Cereals are planted

a, are not powered by tractors.

b. with tractor-drawn drills.

c. to till the soil.

d. with electricity.

2. Переведите предложения, в которых говорится:

о том, что машины выполняют работу экономически более выгодно;

о машинах, приводимых в движение тракторами;

о сельхоз. Машинах в прошлом и будущем.

Do machines make labour more productive?

Can machines do work in a shorter time?

What machines are mounted on a tractor?

What self-propelled machines do you know?

Are milking machines pow­ered with electricity?

What do modern machines differ in?

АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ ТЕРМИНОВ

a – adjective – прилагательное

plplural – множественное число

adaptability n приспособляемость

aeration n аэрация (почвы)

affect v влиять (на что-либо)

alfalfa n – люцерна

apply v – применять, вносить

bedding n – подстилка

breeder n – селекционер, животновод

broadcast v – разбрасывать (семена и др.)

care n – уход, забота; v заботиться

closely adv – тесно

coarse a – крупный (о семенах)

common a обычный, распространённый

compaction n- уплотнение

concentrate n— концентрированный корм, концентрат

condition n- состояние, кондиция

control n – борьба, контроль; v бороться, контролировать

cost n – стоимость, себестоимость; pl затраты, издержки

cover v – заделывать(семена)

cowshed n хлев, коровник

cultivation n— выращивание, возделывание; обработка

cutter n – резальная машина

depreciation n— амортизация, износ

digestible a – перевариваемый, усвояемый

dual-purpose (cattle) a— мясо-молочный скот

economics n – экономика

economy n – экономика, хозяйство

efficiency n – эффективность, производительность

electronic a – электронный

employment n— занятость

farming n – ведение хозяйства, земледелие

fibre n – клетчатка

fine a мелкокомковатый (о почве), мелкий (о семенах)

firm a – уплотнённый, осевший (о почве)

gain v – прибавлять в весе

germination n – прорастание

grass n – злак, трава

grinder n – дробилка

grower n – фермер, колхозник; производитель

herbicide n – гербицид

high-yielding a высокоурожайный, высокоудойный

inbreeding n инбридинг (родственное спаривание)

indigestible a – непериваримый

legume n – бобовое растение

maintenance n – поддержание, сохранение

management n –содержание, управление

markedly adv заметно

marketing n – реализация, сбыт

mellow a – рыхлый, спелый

nutrient n – питательное вещество; а питательный

picker n – уборочная машина

planter n – посадочная машина

power n – энергия; v приводить в движение

production n – возделывание, производство

productivity n – производительность, продуктивность

profitability n рентабельность, прибыльность

profitable a – рентабельный, прибыльный

purebred a чистопородный

rainfall f n – осадки

remove v – выносить (питательные вещества из почвы)

roughage n – грубый корм

set v – устанавливать, налаживать

sheep-pen n – овчарня, загон для овец

sire n – производитель (о животных)

stand n – всходы, травостой, стеблестой

supplement n – добавка

technology n – технология

tractor-drawn a – на тракторной тяге

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